执笔人:    赵静梅             审定人:


Performance Management










AT Foulks Lynch Ltd


1ACCA Performance Management Revision Series 2004

2ACCA Performance Management Exam Kit 2005


Management Accounting




二、各章名称、内容与学时分配 (包括每章的重点、难点)



After studying this chapter, students are required to have a full vision of the background to planning, control and decision-making. Also, students should be able to sets them within the context of the management accounting framework.


Key Points

Identify the characteristics of strategic planning and decision-making.

Contrast strategic planning with short-term / operational planning.

Identify the areas of management accounting information which are of importance in strategic management.

Evaluate the relevance of discounted cash flow principles in information for strategic decision-making.

Select and analyse costs and revenues relevant to strategic planning and decision=making and control.

Identify the characteristics of short-term non-strategic activities.

Discuss the significance of brand awareness and company profile.

Identify the areas of management accounting information appropriate for short-term decision-making.

Explain the differences between management control and operational control in the context of short run decision-making and control.



After studying this chapter, students are required to understand to basic concepts of management information system design and operation.


Key Points

Identify the accounting information requirements for strategic planning, management control and operational control and decision-making.

Describe, with reference to management accounting, ways in which the information requirements of management structure are affected by the features of the structure.

Evaluate the objectives of management accounting and management accounting information.

List and explain the attributes and principles of management accounting information.

Explain the integration of management accounting information within an overall information system.

Define and discuss the merits of, and potential problems with, open and closed systems.

Suggest the ways in which contingent (internal and external) factors influence management accounting and its use.

Illustrate how anticipated human behaviour will influence the design of a management accounting system.

Explain and discuss the impact of responsibility accounting on information requirements.





After studying this chapter, students are required to have a full understanding of the process of gathering, processing and transmission of information within a business management context.


Key Points

Identify the principal internal sources of management accounting information.

Illustrate how these principal sources of information might be used for control purposes.

Identify the direct data capture and process costs of internally generated management accounting information.

Identify the indirect costs of producing internal information.

Explain the principle controls required in generating and distributing internal information.

Discuss the factors that need be considered when determining the capacity and development potential of a system.

Explain the procedures that may be necessary to ensure security of highly confidential information that is not for external consumption.

Identify common external sources of information, e.g. suppliers, government, trade associations, customers, database suppliers.

Identify the costs associated with these external sources.

Discuss the limitations of using externally generated information.

Identify the categories of external information that are likely to be a useful addition to an organisation’s management accounting system.

Illustrate how the information might be used in planning and control activities, e.g. benchmarking against similar organisations.

Identify the stages in the information processing cycle in the context of accounting information.

Identify how the collection and analysis of information is influenced by management accounting principles and techniques being used by the organisation.

Describe the systems involved in the collection and recording of monetary and non-monetary information.

Illustrate how the type of business entity will influence the recording and processing methods.

Explain how IT developments, e.g. spreadsheets, accountancy software packages and electronic mail may influence recording and processing systems.

Discuss the difficulties associated with recording and processing data of a qualitative nature.



After studying this chapter, students are required to have a full understanding of modern developments in business management practices and be able to explain how the developments have impacted on the practice of management accounting.


Key Points

Discuss the expansion in the scope of management accounting in the last 40 years.

Identify and discuss some recently adopted management accounting techniques.

Explain how new techniques may be evaluated.

Discuss ways in which management accounting practitioners are made aware of new techniques.

Illustrate how an organisation’s structure, culture and strategy will influence the adoption of new methods and techniques.

Assess the continuing effectiveness of traditional techniques within a rapidly changing business environment.

Explain the contingency theory of management accounting: Otley.

Explain how institutional theory presents a framework for understanding changes in and the implications for management accounting: Powell and DiMaggio.

Explain and demonstrate activity based management.



After studying this chapter, students are required to explain the management information neds of a modern business operation and the role that IT plays in satisfying those needs. In particular, students should be aware of how developments in business economics, manufacturing practices, management accounting techniques and information technology relate to one another.


Key Points

Discuss the changing accounting information needs of a modern service orientated business compared with the needs of a traditional manufacturing industry.

Discuss how modern IT systems provide the opportunity for instant access to management accounting data throughout an organization.

Discuss how modern IT systems facilitate the remote input of management accounting data in an acceptable format by non-finance specialists.

Explain how modern information systems provide instant access to previously unavailable data that can be used for benchmarking and control purposes.

Discuss the need for businesses to continually refine and develop their management accounting systems if they are to prosper in an increasingly competitive and global market.

Identify the particular information needs of organizations adopting a team / project focus.

Discuss the concept of business integration and the linkage between people, operations, strategy and technology.

Explain the influence of Business Process Re-engineering on systems development.

Identify and discuss the required changes in management accounting systems as a consequence of empowering staff to manage sectors of a business.



After studying this chapter, students are required to be able to use the conventional Cost Volume Profit Analysis to do short-term decision-making.


Key Points

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information using appropriate criteria.

Identify cost classification(s) in decision-making.

Explain how quantitative and qualitative information is used in decision-making.

Evaluate and assess the frequency, timing, format and degree of accuracy in the provision of decision-making information.

Describe the basic decision-making cycle for business decisions.

Classify problems for the purpose of modeling into simple, complex and dynamic problems.

Explain the relevance of endogenous and exogenous variables, policies and controls, performance measures and intermediate variables in model building.

Explain the nature of CVP analysis and name planning and decision-making situations in which it may be used.

Compare the accounting and economic models of CVP analysis.

Explain the assumptions of linearity and the principle of relevant range in the CVP model.

Prepare breakeven charts and profit-volume charts and interpret the information contained within each including multi-product situations.

Comment on the limitations of CVP analysis for planning and decision-making including multi-product situations.

Explain the use of avoidable cost, incremental cost, marginal cost and variable cost in decision-making.

Describe the relationship between fixed cost and time horizon used in a decision situation.

Explain how opportunity cost is used in making decisions.

Identify and calculate relevant costs for specific decision situations from given data.

Explain the meaning of throughput accounting and its use in decision-making.

Explain and illustrate the impact of limiting factors in decision-making.

Solve problems involving changes in product mix, discontinuance of products or departments.

Implement make or buy decisions using relevant costs.

Make decisions as to whether to further process a product before sale using relevant costs and revenues.

Use relevant costs and revenues in decisions relating to the operation of internal service departments or the use of external services.



After studying this chapter, students are required to use the DCF analysis to explore the long-term decision-making process.


Key Points

Define and illustrate the concepts of net present value and internal rate of return.

Calculate the net present value and internal rate of return in the evaluation of investment opportunity.

Explain the use of DCF techniques for decisions involving cash outlays over long periods.

Explain the relationship between net present value and residual income where annuity depreciation is used in the residual income calculations.

Compare and contrast net present value with payback and accounting rate of return in the evaluation of investment opportunities.



After studying this chapter, students are required to understand aids to decision-making that may be deployed in conditions of risk and uncertainty. These practices may be used in the context of budgeting or operational and strategic decision-making.


Key Points

Define and distinguish between uncertainty and risk preference.

Explain ways in which uncertainty may be allowed for by using conservatism and worst/most likely/best outcome estimates.

Explain the use of sensitivity analysis in decision situations.

Explain the use of probability estimates and the calculation of expected values.

Explain and illustrate the use of maximin, maximax, and minimax regrets techniques in decision-making.

Describe the structure and use of decision trees.

Apply joint probabilities in decision tree analysis.

Illustrate the use of decision tree analysis in assessing the range of outcomes and the cumulative probabilities of each outcome.



After studying this chapter, students are required to have a brief understanding of performance evaluation and how objectives, goals and targets are formulated within an organization.


Key Points

Discuss the purpose of a mission statement and the pursuit of a vision.

Discuss the structure and content of a mission statement.

Explain how high level corporate objectives are developed.

Identify strategic objectives and how they may be incorporated into the corporate plan.

Explain how strategic objectives are cascaded down the organization via the formulation of subsidiary objectives.

Identify any relevant social and ethical obligations that should be considered in the pursuit of corporate objectives.

Discuss the concept of the ‘planning gap’ and alternative strategies to ‘fill the gap’.

Identify the characteristics of operational performance.

Contrast the relative significance of planning as against controlling activities at different levels in the performance hierarchy.



After studying this chapter, students are required to understand the means that are used to measure business performance in the context of a private sector operation.


Key Points

Explain why the primary objective of financial performance should be concerned with the benefits of shareholders.

Discuss the crucial objectives of survival and business growth.

Discuss the appropriateness of differing measures of performance e.g. ROCE, EPS, ROL, sales margin, EBITDA, Residual Income, NPV, IRR.

Explain why indicators of liquidity and gearing need to be considered alongside profitability.

Compare and contrast short and long run financial performance and the resulting management issues.

Contrast the traditional relationship between profits and share value with the long-term profit expectations of the stock market and recent financial performance of new technology/communication companies.



After studying this chapter, students are required to have a more complete impression of business performance by understanding the full range of non-financial performance measures.


Key Points

Discuss the interaction of NFPIs with financial performance indicators.

Discuss the implications of the growing emphasis on NFPIs.

Identify and comment on the significance of NFPIs in relation to employees, e.g. staff turnover, sickness rates.

Identify and comment on the significance of NFPIs in relation to product/service quality e.g. customer satisfaction reports, repeat business ratings, customer loyalty, access and availability.

Discuss the difficulties in interpreting data on qualitative issues.



After studying this chapter, students are required to explores performance measurement within the context of public, charitable and voluntary sector organizations.


Key Points

Discuss the potential for diversity in objectives depending on organization type.

Comment on the need to achieve objectives with limited funds that may not be controllable.

Identify and explain ways in which performance may be judged in non-profit seeking organizations.

Comment on the difficulty in measuring outputs when performance is not judged in terms of money or an easily quantifiable objective.

Explain how the combination of politics and the desire to measure public sector performance may result in undesirable service outcomes.

Comment on ‘value for money’ service as a not-for-profit sector goal.



After studying this chapter, students are required to understand various general aspects of performance evaluation and the manner in which the regulatory environment may influence reported performance in some sectors. In particular, students should know how to evaluate performance in a service environment and the behavioural issues in business performance measurement.


Key Points

Comment on the need to consider the environment in which an organization is operating when assessing its performance e.g. What are the prevailing market conditions? Is funding relatively easy or difficult to secure? Does the strength of the national currency impact on the organisation’s performance? Is the prevailing political climate particularly favourable or unfavourable towards the organization currently? How have these issues changed over time?

Consider the impact of governmental regulation on the performance measurement techniques used and the performance levels achieved (for example, in the case of utility services and former state monopolies).

Discuss the ‘balanced scorecard’ as a way in which to improve the range and linkage of performance measures.

Discuss the ‘performance pyramid’ as a way in which to link strategy and operations.

Discuss the work of Fitzgerald and Moon that considers performance measurement in business services using building blocks for dimensions, standards and rewards.

Explain the relationship between performance measurement systems and behaviour.

Discuss how performance measurement systems can influence behaviour.

Consider the accountability issues arising from performance measurement systems.

Identify the ways in which performance measurement systems may send the ‘wrong signals’ and result in undesirable business consequences.

Comment on the potential beneficial and adverse consequences of linking reward schemes to performance measurement.

Explain how management style needs to be considered when designing an effective performance management system.



After studying this chapter, students are required to have a full vision of the practice of budgeting and the role that budgeting plays in the control of business operations.


Key Points

Describe the internal and external sources of planning information for an organization.

List the information used in the preparation of the master budget and in its functional components.

Contrast the information used in the operation of zero-based budgeting and incremental information.

Explain and illustrate the use of budgeting as a planning aid in the coordination of business activity.

Explain and quantify the application of positive and negative feedback in the operation of budgetary control.

Explain and quantify the application of feedforward control in the operation of budgeting.

Chapter 15 BUDGETARY PLANNING 3hours


After studying this chapter, students are required to be able to use the quantitative techniques that are used in the construction of budgets.


Key Points

Identify quantitative aids which may be used in budgetary planning and control.

Discuss and evaluate methods for the analysis of costs into fixed and variable components.

Give examples to demonstrate the use of forecasting techniques in the budgetary planning process.

Explain the use of forecasting techniques in the budgetary planning process.

Describe the use of learning cure theory in budgetary planning and control.

Implement learning curve theory.

Identify factors which may cause uncertainty in the setting of budgets and in the budgetary control process.

Identify the effects of flexible budgeting in reducing uncertainty in budgeting.

Illustrate the use of probabilities in budgetary planning and comment on the relevance of the information thus obtained.

Explain the use of computer based models in accommodating uncertainty in budgeting and in promoting ‘what-if’ analysis.

Chapter 16 BUDGETARY CONTROL 3hours


After studying this chapter, students are required to have an overview of budgeting with a critical review of various aspects of budgeting practice. Particular attention should be given to the relationship between budgeting and the behaviour of people in the organization..


Key Points

Identify the factors which affect human behaviour in budgetary planning and control.

Compare and contrast ways in which alternative management styles may affect the operation of budgetary planning and control systems.

Explain budgeting as a bargaining process between people.

Explain the conflict between personal and corporate aspirations and its impact on budgeting.

Explain the application of contingency theory to the budgeting process.

Discuss the impact of political, social, economic and technological change on budgeting.

Critically review the use of budgetary planning and control.

Enumerate and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of alternative budget models such and fixed and flexible, rolling, activity based, zero-based and incremental.

Identify the effects on staff and management of the operation of budgetary planning and control.

Identify and appraise current developments in budgeting.



After studying this chapter, students are required to understand the role that strategic planning plays in a business operation and link between plans and the control function.


Key Points

Compare strategic with operational planning and control.

Explain how organizational survival in the long-term necessitates consideration of life cycle issues.

Identify the role of corporate planning in clarifying corporate objectives, making strategic decisions and checking progress towards the objectives.

Explain the structure of corporate planning.

Discuss the combining of strategic planning with freewheeling opportunism in a fast changing business environment.

Comment on the potential conflict between strategic plans and short-term localized decisions.

Explain the principles of SWOT analysis.

Explain how SWOT analysis may assist in the planning process.

Comment on the benefits and difficulties of benchmarking performance with best practice organizations.

Explain how risk and uncertainty play an especially important role in long-term strategic planning that relies upon forecasts of exogenous variables.

Explain aspects of strategic management in the context of multinational companies.

Chapter 18 PRICING 1 3hours


After studying this chapter, students are required to appreciate the role of product pricing in maximizing shareholder value. In particular, attention should be paid to the manner in which management accounting technique contributes to pricing decisions.


Key Points

Identify and discuss market situations which influence the pricing policy adopted by an organization.

Explain and discuss the variables (including price) which influence demand for a product or service.

Explain the price elasticity of demand.

Manipulate data in order to determine an optimum price/output level.

Calculate prices using full cost and marginal cost as the pricing base.

Compare the use of full cost pricing and marginal cost pricing as planning and decision-making aids.

Chapter 19 PRICING 2 3hours


After studying this chapter, students are required to understand some specific aspects of price determination, including the use of ABC and strategic concepts.


Key Points

Calculate price using activity based costing in the estimation of the cost element.

Contrast and discuss the implications of prices using the activity based costing technique with those using volume related methods in assigning costs to products.

Take informed pricing decisions in the context of skimming, penetration and differential pricing.

Explain the problems of pricing in the context of short life products.

Explain the operation of target pricing in achieving a desired market share.

Chapter 20 TRANSFER PRICING 1 3hours


After studying this chapter, students are required to know the means by which a divisionalised organization charges one of its divisions for goods and services provided by another division.


Key Points

Describe the organization structure in which transfer pricing may be required.

Explain divisional autonomy, divisional performance measurement and corporate profit maximization and their link with transfer pricing.

Formulate the “general rule” for transfer pricing and explain its application.

Describe, illustrate and evaluate the use of market price as the transfer price.

Assess where an adjusted market price will be appropriate for transfer business.

Assess the impact of market price methods on divisional autonomy, performance measurement and corporate profit maximization.

Calculate an appropriate transfer price from given data.

Chapter 21 TRANSFER PRICING 2 4hours


After studying this chapter, students are required to understand various aspects of transfer pricing using models of business economics and also certain specific issues relevant to transfer pricing.


Key Points

Describe the alternative cost-based approaches to transfer pricing.

Identify the circumstances in which marginal cost should be used as the transfer price and determine its impact on divisional autonomy, performance measurement and corporate profit maximization.

Illustrate methods by which a share of fixed costs may be included in the transfer price.

Comment on these methods and their impact on divisional autonomy, performance measurement and corporate profit maximization.

Discuss the advantages that may be claimed for the use of standard cost rather than actual cost when setting transfer prices.

Explain the relevance of opportunity cost in transfer pricing.

List the information which must be centrally available in order that the profit maximizing transfer policy may be implemented between divisions where intermediate products are in short supply.

Illustrate the formulation of the quantitative model for a range of limiting factors from which the corporate profit maximizing transfer policy may be calculated.

Analyze the concept of shadow price in setting transfer prices for intermediate products that are in short supply.

Illustrate the corporate profit maximizing transfer policy where a single intermediate resource is in short supply and a limited external source is available and explain the information that must be available centrally in order that the transfer policy may be formulated.

Explain and demonstrate the issues that require consideration when setting transfer prices in multinational companies.